DESCRIPTION OF POTHOLE PROCEDURES
AIR Utility Surveyors performs a full range of specialized engineering services including Underground Utility Location
and Vacuum Excavation (to verify depth and alignment of underground utilities).
Underground Utility Location employs sophisticated electronic locating devices to trace the route of an underground
utility; then the route is marked on the surface with marking paint in paved areas, or with 60 penny nails and feathers
in unpaved areas.
Vacuum excavation employs a vacuum truck in conjunction with high-pressure air or water to excavate material and
expose an underground utility. A 10 to 12-inch diameter hole is first cored or chiseled through the pavement so that
the vacuum hose and high-pressure air or water hose can be inserted.
Utilities found during potholing are located on the surface by placing two reference points (typically 36" apart) on
either side of the pothole along the centerline (or edge) of the utility, using paving nails or 60 penny nails as
appropriate. Depth measurements (to the nearest ½ inch) are taken midway between the two reference points.
Utility alignment, depth, and other data are marked with pink paint (on pavement), or on wood lath (unpaved areas).